A motion to suppress is a challenge to the legality of how evidence was attained.
In Texas and the United States we have what is known as the “exclusionary rule.” This rule means where a court finds evidence was attained illegally – it cannot be used for any reason against the accused. The exclusion (or suppression) of evidence often makes it impossible for the prosecution to prove one or more elements of the crime — which means they often lose the entire case based on a successful motion to suppress because they will fail to meet their burden of proof at trial. Other times, a successful motion to suppress will exclude a damaging admission, confession or other piece of evidence which does not win a case for the defendant but makes the case much more difficult on the prosecution.
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